Obtaining torque in rotating electric motors, due to the electromechanical conversion of electrical energy into mechanical or vice versa, occurs through the mutual influence of the stator and rotor fluxes, at which point it is called the electromechanical torque “Tem”. In order for the developed torque to be unidirectional so that the rotor rotates continuously 1.5 hp motors , each inductor pole must always act with the same current produced by the current in the armature conductors, which means that the currents in the conductors in a certain polar region must always have the same meaning.
The developed electromechanical torque “Tem” is inverted only when the excitation current or armature current is inverted, in the first situation the inductor field poles are inverted and, in the second case, the armature poles. If both flows are reversed, the direction of the torque will remain. To understand the commutation, we must consider an elementary two-pole machine, operating in the motor mode and with the armature having a coil of a loop. For the position of the coil and external current, the overlap of the current flow in the conductors will be that of the inductor flux and will result in a nonuniform distribution of the flux.